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"What is Fire proofing"

Définition

Fireproofing is a technology which allows the improvement of the reaction to fire of materials considered dangerous in case of fire :

by retarding the initial start of the fire,
by limiting their post-combustion,
by retarding the decrease in their physical and mechanical properties.

Role

The technology which consists of applying fireproofing products to the materials, by various procedures, allows the reduction of the risk of fire and to obtain materials which conform to the Fire Safety Legislation.

In France, the legislation makes fireproofing obligatory for decoration inside establishments which receive the public. The classification demanded for the materials used is "4-2-1"

M 4 for floorings - M 2 for vertical surfaces - M 1 for ceilings.

History

In the beginning, man, having discovered fire, made it a god, fleeing from it as soon as it threatened their existence. They understood however that an abundant rain storm extinguished the fire and that humid areas escaped the fire. Early man dared to fight the fire with water.

Archaeologists have found traces of the first attempts at fireproofing with the Egyptians who used various minerals to make certain cloths such as cotton or linen resistant to fire.

During the siege of Piraeus (23 B.C.) solutions of alum were used to make the wooded ramparts fire resistant.

The Hebrews and the Greeks probably organised the first fire patrols, charged with giving the alarm and to fight the fire.

Under the reign of Nero, the burning of Rome in 64 A.D. caused the application of important means of fire prevention to avoid a repeat of a similar catastrophe.

Gaule (France) benefited from the experience of the Roman conquerors, but at the beginning of the middle ages, fire fighting was a precarious occupation, and for many centuries little progress was made in fire fighting methods.

Real development in fire fighting came in the 17th and 18th centuries with the work of the Englishman Wyld and the treatment of cotton with a solution of alum, of iron sulphate and borax (1735).

A century later (1824) a Frenchman Gay-Lussac took out a patent on the use of a mixture of ammonium phosphate, ammonium chlorate and borax, for the fireproofing of cotton.

The development of fireproofing has reached a high point during the years after the Second World War.

Statistic

Modern life brings with it a constant increase in the dangers of fire. The daily use of new materials extremely inflammable, the concentration into a small space of more and more people and property causes an aggravation of the seriousness of a fire, both in numbers and in gravity, particularly in the industrial sector.

It is thought that losses due to industrial fires have quadrupled between 1990 and 2000, despite the progress made in the prevention and protection against fire.

In France alone, there were more than 400 000 accidents in 2003. For the year 1997, the damages amounted to several billion Euros, in both direct losses and production losses.

The figures above are only those covered by reimbursement by the Fire Insurance Companies. If indirect losses are added ( bankruptcy, reduced profits ) the figures are very much higher.

Fire has other serious consequences - unemployment following the destruction of an industrial site, the desolation of an entire region after a forest fire. Many works of art and irreplaceable souvenirs are destroyed every year.

 
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Réalisation : Juliana Multimédia